Until George mendel published the results of his plant-breeding experiments with peas in 1861, no satisfactory explanation of the processes of heredity existed. She great achievements of mendel and his follower morgan was me demonstration that genes are the important elements of heredulary traits and biological make-up of an individual.
what is gene-
Genes are working subunits of DNA. DNA is a vast chemical information database that carries the complete set of instructions for making all the proteins a cell will ever need. Each gene contains a particular set of instructions, usually coding for a particular protein.
Each cell in the human body contains about 25,000 to 35,000 genes, which carry information that determines your traits (say: trates). Traits are characteristics you inherit from your parents; this means your parents pass some of their characteristics on to you through genes. For example, if both of your parents have green eyes, you might inherit the trait of green eyes from them. Or if your mom has freckles, you might inherit that trait and wind up with a freckled face. And genes aren't just in humans — all animals and plants have genes, too.
Chromosomes are found inside cells, the very small units that make up all living things. A cell is so tiny that you can only see it through the lens of a strong microscope, and there are billions of cells in your body. Most cells have one nucleus (say: noo-clee-us). The nucleus, which is sort of egg-shaped, is like the brain of the cell. It tells every part of the cell what to do. How does the nucleus know so much? It contains our chromosomes and genes. As tiny as it is, the nucleus has more information in it than the biggest dictionary you've ever seen.
In humans, a cell nucleus contains 46 individual chromosomes or 23 pairs of chromosomes (chromosomes come in pairs, remember? 23 X 2 = 46). Half of these chromosomes come from one parent and half come from the other parent. But not every living thing has 46 chromosomes inside of its cells. For instance, a fruit fly cell only has four chromosomes!
How to species came into being through a gendual process of evolution over many generations of time?
The answer has been found is the a) studies of cellular reproduction b) mendelian genetics, and c) Darwin’s natural selection.
In modern sense, by ‘evolution’ is meant any change in the heredetary endowments. An understanding of the biological processes all for understanding the concept of ‘GENE’ which is vital to life process.
Traits are products of genes that an organism inhisto. Traits or characteristics develop under the direction of gene. Gene is located in the rucleus of a all, made up of DNA, RNA and protein, knowledge of Cellular – Reproduction: and Biology of the Cell is essential formundustanding of the function and mutation of gene.
The total set of genes in an organism is known as its genome. An organism's genome size is generally lower in prokaryotes, both in number of base pairs and number of genes, than even single-celled eukaryotes. However, there is no clear relationship between genome sizes and complexity in eukaryotic organisms. One of the largest known genomes belongs to the single-celled amoeba Amoeba dubia, with over 670 billion base pairs, some 200 times larger than the human genome.
The estimated number of genes in the human genome has been repeatedly revised downward since the completion of the Human Genome Project; current estimates place the human genome at just under 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000–25,000 genes. A recent Science article gives a number of 20,488 protein-coding genes, with perhaps 100 more yet to be discovered. The gene density of a genome is a measure of the number of genes per million base pairs (called a megabase, Mb); prokaryotic genomes have much higher gene densities than eukaryotes. The gene density of the human genome is roughly 12–15 genes/Mb.
why anthropology read Gean-
Anthropology is the study of humans…but there is a lot to know about us, so when venturing off to college and declaring your major as “Anthropology,” there might be something else on this list that you really mean to study. Anthropology students learn about the concept of culture, the nature of anthropological fieldwork, and the connections between anthropology and the other social sciences. They study the various theories that attempt to explain human behavior as well as the range of methods anthropologists use to analyze data. Students can focus on geographical areas, and on issues like neocolonialism, gender studies, religion and symbolism, or comparative political organization.
Medical anthropology looks at medicine from a cross-cultural perspective, focusing on the human, as opposed to biological, side of things. Students learn how to analyze various kinds of medical practice as cultural systems. Particular emphasis is placed on Western (bio-medicine); students examine how biomedicine constructs disease, health, body, and mind, and how it articulates with other institutions, national and international.
Physical anthropology deals with Forensic anthropology, Gene-culture co evolution, Human behavioral ecology, Human evolution, Population genetics, Primatology and other biology.